National Immunization Month

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August is National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM). NIAM was established to highlight the importance of vaccination for people of all ages. Additionally, it was put in place to encourage people to ensure that they are up to date on the vaccines that are appropriate for their age. Vaccination is vitally important as it has helped eradicate and lower the severity of many diseases that once were a serious threat.

What is a vaccine?

The first vaccine was developed by Edward Jenner when he was able to help provide protection against smallpox by inoculating people with the cowpox virus. Since then, many more vaccines have been able to be developed, and as a result, many diseases have been eradicated. A vaccine is able to pass what is called active immunity to an individual, and they will be able to avoid contracting a disease. Some vaccines have dead forms of the virus or bacteria and others have low concentrations of the active virus. While most vaccines are given as shots, other vaccines have been made to be a flu mist or even as a solution that patients can drink.

Do vaccines cause autism?

No! In 1998, Andrew Wakefield published a study that established a link between MMR and autism, which received a lot of publicity and caused a lot of widespread concern. The study was poorly done, and a lot of other aspects of the published study were incorrectly attempted. The journal that published the article retracted the article, and Wakefield and all other involved with the study were guilty of several ethical violations. Since then, CDC has issued multiple statements stating that there is no link between vaccines and autism.

How do I figure out what vaccines I need?

First, obtain a record of your immunizations from your doctor. Additionally, the state usually keeps track of the immunizations that you have received as well through a program that pharmacies and providers can access. Once you have this information, you can discuss options that are appropriate for you with a pharmacist or other healthcare provider. The CDC has recommended schedules available online (see first link listed under additional resources).

What if I don’t see a doctor regularly? Where else can I receive vaccines?

Pharmacists are now able to administer all vaccines to patients over the age of 18 without a prescription. It may be a good idea to double check with your pharmacy to see if they have the vaccine you need in stock.

Additional Resources:

2017 Vaccine Schedules for Adults and Children: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/

CDC Vaccine Website: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/index.html

National Immunization Awareness Month Page: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/events/niam.html

 

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Overview

By: Quinton Franklin, University of Iowa College of Pharmacy, Class of 2018.

Obstructive sleep apnea, otherwise known as OSA, is the most common sleep related breathing disorder with an estimated 26% of adults aged 30-70 having obstructive sleep apnea. Despite the large prevalence, an estimated 80% of moderate or severe OSA cases go undiagnosed. OSA can also have a large impact on your health, causing fatigue, impaired concentration, daytime sleepiness, increased blood pressure, severe gastric reflux, depression and irritability, brain damage, and even sudden death. Given the high prevalence, frequently missed diagnosis, and consequences of untreated OSA, it is important to be educated on OSA and how it is treated.

What is Obstructive sleep apnea?

Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep disorder where the airway is completely blocked leading to a cessation of breathing. In OSA, loud snoring can be caused due to the increased effort needed to make air pass through the blocked airway and into the lungs. Complete airway obstruction can be due to the structure of the face, leading to components of the mouth such as the tongue, palate, and tonsils completely blocking the airway. The risk of OSA is increased in men, obesity, increasing age, abnormalities of the face and upper airway and those with a family history of OSA.

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How do I know if I have obstructive sleep apnea?

Unfortunately, OSA does not have an easy and specific diagnostic test. If you suspect that you have OSA, or have symptoms such as waking in the night, excessive snoring or cessation of breathing reported by a partner, daytime sleepiness, wake to excessively dry mouth. or other signs of poor sleep, It is important to let your healthcare provider know. Depending on their decision you may be asked to participate in a sleep study, where you will be monitored overnight to check for the presence and frequency of blocked breathing during your sleep.

How is Obstructive sleep apnea treated?

Thankfully obstructive sleep apnea is easily treatable through a variety of methods. OSA can be treated through weight loss if needed, modifications to sleep posture, decreased sedative use, or by way of a continuous positive airway pressure device or CPAP.

What is a CPAP?

A CPAP helps to keep the airway open by way of pressure gradients, increasing the amount of air delivered to the lungs. For best results, it is important to find a CPAP mask that fits snug onto your face, and that is not too loose or tight and to use your CPAP daily. In addition, it is important to keep your CPAP clean and properly maintained, as dirty CPAP machines decrease effectiveness and can cause bacterial infection.

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Here at NuCara we employ several respiratory therapists to help you select a CPAP device, mask, supplies, and give further instructions and tips on how to use your device. For more information, look to our website http://www.nucara.com.